due to stone damage
due to stone damage

Various natural factors like rain, heat etc. and chemicals spoil the stones over time.


Rain water acts on the stones both physically and chemically. The physical action is due to erosion and transport forces and the latter is due to decomposition, oxidation and hydration of the minerals present in the stones.

2.physical activity

Alternating wetting from rain and drying out from the sun causes internal stress and resultant dissolution in the stones.

3.chemical reaction

Acid rain water in industrial areas reacts with the components of the stones causing it to corrode.


The dissolution of alkaline silicates of alumina into stones is mainly due to the action of chemically active water. The hydrated silicate and carbonate forms of alkaline substances are very soluble in water and are removed in solution, leaving behind hydrated silicates of alumina (kaolinite). The decomposition of feldspar is shown as

K2Ali2hey3.6H2O + CO2 +NH2o = k2CO3 + Ali2hey3.2SiO2.2H2O + 4SiO2.NH2hey

Oxidation and hydration

Rocks containing iron compounds in the form of peroxides, sulfides and carbonates get oxidized and hydrated when treated with acid rain water. As an example peroxide-FeO is converted to ferric oxide-Fe2O3 which combines with water to form FeO.nH2O. This chemical change is accompanied by an increase in volume and results in a physical change that is manifested by the liberation of neighboring minerals that make up the rocks. As another example iron sulfide and siderite are readily oxidized to limonite and liberated sulfur, which combines with water and oxygen to form sulfuric acid and finally sulfate.


In colder places, the frost pierces the pores of the stones where it freezes, expands and forms cracks.


Since there are dust particles in the air, the friction caused by these causes the stones to corrode.

6.temperature change

Expansion and contraction caused by repeated temperature changes causes stone to corrode, especially if a rock is composed of several minerals that have different coefficients of linear expansion.

7.vegetable growth

The roots and weeds of trees growing in masonry joints keep the stones moist and also secrete organic and acidic substances that cause stone deterioration. Dust particles of organic or inorganic origin may also accumulate on the surface and enter the pores of the stones. When these come in contact with moisture or rain water, the bacteriological process is triggered and as a result acid producing microbes attack the stones which cause decay.

8.mutual decay

When different types of stones are used together, there is mutual decay. For example when sandstone is used under limestone, chemicals brought into the sandstone from the limestone by rainwater will corrode it.

9.chemical component

The fumes, fumes, acid and acid fumes present in the environment worsen the stones. CaCO. containing stone3, MGCO3 are badly affected.


These eroded limestone but act as a protective coat for other stones. The mollusks gradually weaken and eventually erode the stone by forming a series of parallel vertical holes in the limestone and sandstone.

Er. Mukesh Kumar

Photo of author
Er. Mukesh Kumar is Editor in Chief and Co-Funder at ProCivilEngineer.com Civil Engineering Website. Mukesh Kumar is a Bachelor in Civil Engineering From MIT. He has work experience in Highway Construction, Bridge Construction, Railway Steel Girder work, Under box culvert construction, Retaining wall construction. He was a lecturer in a Engineering college for more than 6 years.