15 DIFFERENT TYPES OF LOADS ON BUILDING (IN SHORT)

External loads on a structure can be classified in several different ways. In one classification, they can be considered static or dynamic.


  1. static load They are forces that are applied slowly and then remain almost constant.
  2. An example is the load, or dead load, of a floor or ceiling system.
  3. dynamic load varies with time. These include bar and impact loads.
  4. frequent load They are forces that are applied multiple times, causing a variation in magnitude, and sometimes in the sense of internal forces. A good example is an off-balance motor.
  5. impact load They are the forces that a structure or its components require to absorb energy in a short period of time. An example is the fall of a heavy weight on a floor slab, or the shock wave from an explosion hitting the walls and ceiling of a building.
  6. External forces can also be classified as distributed and concentrated.
  7. evenly distributed load Such forces are, or can be, for practical purposes, assumed to be constant over the surface area of ​​the supporting member. The dead weight of a rolled-steel I beam is a good example.
  8. concentrated load They are forces that have such a small contact area that they are negligible compared to the entire surface area of ​​the supporting member. A beam supported on a girder, for example, may, for all practical purposes, be considered a concentrated load on the girder.
  9. Another common classification for external forces labels them axial, eccentric and torsional.
  10. One axial load is a force whose resultant passes through the centroid of the segment in question and is perpendicular to the plane of the segment.
  11. One eccentric load The force under consideration is perpendicular to the plane of the segment, but not passing through the centroid of the segment, thus bending the supporting member.
  12. torsion load There are forces that are offset from the shear center of the section in question and are in or inclined to the plane of the section, thus rotating the supporting member.
  13. In addition, building codes classify loads according to the nature of the source.
  14. dead load Materials, equipment, constructions, or other elements of weight that are supported by, on, or in a building, including its own weight, which are intended to remain permanently.
  15. live load Include all occupants, materials, equipment, constructions, or other elements of load supported by or in a building and which are moved or likely to be moved during the expected life of the building.
  16. impact load A fraction of the live load is used to account for the additional stresses and deflections that result from the movement of the live load.
  17. wind load are the maximum forces that can be applied to a building by air in an average repetition interval, or a set of forces that will produce equal stress.
  18. snow load are the maximum forces that can be applied by an accumulation of snow in an average repetition interval.
  19. seismic load They are the forces that produce maximum stress or deformation in a building during an earthquake.


Er. Mukesh Kumar

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Er. Mukesh Kumar is Editor in Chief and Co-Funder at ProCivilEngineer.com Civil Engineering Website. Mukesh Kumar is a Bachelor in Civil Engineering From MIT. He has work experience in Highway Construction, Bridge Construction, Railway Steel Girder work, Under box culvert construction, Retaining wall construction. He was a lecturer in a Engineering college for more than 6 years.