Brick masonry is made from bricks bonded together with mortar. Clay mortar can be used for temporary sheds but lime or cement mortar is used for all permanent buildings.
The different types of bonds commonly used in brick masonry are:
- stretcher binding
- header bond
- english bond and
- Flemish Bondage
1. stretcher bond
A stretcher brick has a long face as seen in height. The 190mm×90mm×90mm, 190mm×90mm size brick consists of a stretcher. In stretcher bond masonry all the bricks are arranged in a stretcher course as shown in figure-1. However care must be taken to not break the vertical joints. This type of construction is useful for building a half brick thick partition wall.
2. header bond
A header brick has a short face as seen in height. A standard brick has this 90 mm × 90 mm face. In header bond brick masonry all the bricks are arranged in a header course as shown in figure-2. This type of bond is useful for building a thick brick wall.
3. english bond
This elective course includes headers and stretchers. It is considered to be the strongest bond. Therefore it is the bond commonly used for walls of all thicknesses. To break the continuity of the vertical joints a brick is cut lengthwise into two halves and is used at the beginning and end of the wall after the first header. It is called Queen’s Closer. (See Figure-3). Fig-3 shows the typical one brick and half brick thick wall with English binding.
4. Flemish Bond
This type of bond includes optional headers and stretchers in each course. [Fig-4]Elective courses start with stretchers and headers. If a course starts with a header, queen closure is required to break the vertical joints. Each header is supported centrally on the stretcher below it.
Flemish bonds can be further classified as:
- Double Flemish Bond
- Single Flemish Bond.
In the case of Double Flemish Bondthere is darkness in both the faces of the wall, In other words Each course has optional headers and stretchers, while single flemish bond The outer faces of the walls have a Flemish look while the inner faces have an English Bond look [Fig-4 (a), (b)],
Building a Flemish bond requires more skill. It gives a more pleasing look. But it is not as strong as the English bond. If only pointing is to be used for the finished wall, Flemish Bond can be used to obtain a good aesthetic view. If plastering is going to be used, it is better to use English bond.