1. ferrocement

Ferroment is a type of reinforced concrete made of concrete with small aggregates (or coarse cement mortar), 12 to 30 mm thick, reinforced with at least two layers of small diameter, 3 to 6 mm diameter galvanized spacers. Separated orthogonally woven wire mesh wire or weld mesh. Cement mortar is made with plasticizers and polymers to make it dense without pores. The work does not cause shrinkage cracks as the wire mesh is nearby.

This method can be used to provide protective reinforced membranes for rehabilitation of endangered RCC members. Many constructions such as building a small non-load bearing partition or even a small water tank with cement mortar laid over a layer of weld mesh and chicken mesh by an experienced worker without any concrete formwork can go.

2. Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC)

different forms of fiber
different forms of fiber

Fiber reinforced concrete is Portland cement concrete mixed with evenly spaced short length fibers. These fibers can be natural fibers such as coir or man-made fibers such as steel, carbon, polymers, etc. We usually use another type of fiber, the most common type being steel fiber. They are available in various forms.

They are commonly used for the manufacture of industrial floors and road pavements. Today, several types of fibers have been developed to be used with concrete for many purposes. Both steel and polypropylene fibers are used to hold concrete in place by shotcreting (or gunniting). Fiber reinforced concrete not only prevents initial shrinkage cracks but also improves the strength and ductility of the reinforced sections.

3. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)

This is an important modern development in the repair of RC members. We have polymers as one of the solid chemicals. We also have different types of reinforcing fibers such as carbon, glass or aramid (a synthetic or organic fiber). These two are combined together to form a modern FRP product. There are many such products available. Some are stronger in only one direction – along the length. Others are stronger in both directions – along the length and width.

FRP is very strong and hence, can be used as reinforcement. It can be attached to concrete using a high-strength epoxy resin as an adhesive. We can also stretch the fiber along its length and then tie it to the concrete member so that it acts as a pressing device. RC member ten is under pressure. Thus, it can be used as both a reinforcement and a prestressing device.

4. Cementcrete (Microconcrete)

In most repair works, we use concrete with a thick aggregate of 6 mm to 8 mm (mostly below 10 mm). This concrete having coarse aggregate of small size is called cementcrete or microconcrete. Microconcrete with chicken mesh can be used in places in repair work.

5. Geopolymer Concrete (concrete without Portland cement)

An alkaline liquid made to react with silicon and of geological origin or produced as an industrial byproduct. It produces concrete without Portland cement. Since the chemical reaction that takes place to produce binders is a polymerization process, such concrete is called polymer concrete. Our traditional concrete is Portland cement concrete or simply cement concrete. Geopolymer concrete can be produced from ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and alkaline liquids. Water is added to this concrete only for its ability to work and for ease of holding the concrete. On the other hand, the water in the concrete is essential for the hydration of the cement in Portland cement.

6. silica fume concrete

Silica fume concrete is concrete in which silica fume (very finely divided pozzolanic material) is used to produce high strength Portland cement concrete. The amount of silica fume by weight of cement should not exceed 10%. Superplasticizers are also required to produce the required working capacity. If the repair depth is less than 150 mm, an epoxy bonding agent should be used to bond the fresh silica fume concrete to the old concrete.

Er. Mukesh Kumar

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Er. Mukesh Kumar is Editor in Chief and Co-Funder at ProCivilEngineer.com Civil Engineering Website. Mukesh Kumar is a Bachelor in Civil Engineering From MIT. He has work experience in Highway Construction, Bridge Construction, Railway Steel Girder work, Under box culvert construction, Retaining wall construction. He was a lecturer in a Engineering college for more than 6 years.