The main fire safety requirements for multi-storey buildings can be summarized as follows.

Fire prevention in multi-storey buildings
fire prevention in multistorey building

1. structure

  • The structural framework can be in RCC or steel. In the case of a steel structure, it will be necessary to enclose the structural components with tiles, concrete or bricks.
  • The fire resistance of load-bearing walls, columns and beams shall not be less than two hours.

2. Interior walls and partitions

  • Interior walls can be in brick, hollow concrete block, tile or wood.
  • However, wall materials must be treated in such a way that they must have a fire resistance of at least one hour.

3. Ladder

  • The enclosed walls of the main staircase must have a fire resistance of at least one hour.
  • The ladder enclosure should be of self-contained type with one side preferably adjacent to the outer wall.
  • Ladders should not be arranged around the lift shaft.
  • Access to the stairs should be through doors with fire resistance of at least half an hour. The doors should be of swing type opening in the direction of escape.
  • The door to the stair enclosure on the ground floor should open into an open space.
  • A sufficient number of stairs should be provided to meet the travel distance requirements of the building type.

4. fire escape or outdoor stairs

  • Apart from the main staircase, it is necessary to make suitable provision of fire escape in the form of external stairs.
  • All fire escapes should be directly connected to the ground floor and their entrance should be away from the internal staircase of the building.

5. basement

  • The basement should be properly ventilated.
  • The main staircase of the building should terminate on the ground floor and as far as possible access to the basement should be through a separate staircase.
  • Basement stairs should be of enclosed type and have a fire resistance of at least two hours.
  • If the basement is to be used for car parking, installation of electric sub-station, storage of combustible material, etc., it is necessary to install sprinkler system to extinguish the fire.

6. water storage tank

  • There should be a provision of underground water storage tanks of one lakh to two lakh liters capacity which should be exclusively for fire fighting purposes.
  • The arrangement for the replenishment of water in the tank should be made by the municipality or the tube well.

7. fire detection and extinguishing systems

  • All multi-storey buildings should have adequate fire detection and fire extinguishing systems.

Er. Mukesh Kumar

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Er. Mukesh Kumar is Editor in Chief and Co-Funder at Civil Engineering Website. Mukesh Kumar is a Bachelor in Civil Engineering From MIT. He has work experience in Highway Construction, Bridge Construction, Railway Steel Girder work, Under box culvert construction, Retaining wall construction. He was a lecturer in a Engineering college for more than 6 years.