GATE Syllabus For Civil Engineering – The Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering, also known as GATE, is a national-level entrance exam for postgraduate engineering programmes that caters to graduate students in engineering. In most cases, this is carried out by the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore in addition to seven other Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) situated all over the country.

It takes place during the month of February of each year, and the following GATE entrance exam is anticipated to take place during the month of February in the year 2023. The Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) will be run by IIT Delhi in 2023, and the subject of Biomedical Engineering will be included as a new paper option.

## GATE Syllabus For Civil Engineering

The course outline for GATE Civil Engineering 2023 has been made available by IIT Delhi. Candidates who will be taking the GATE exam in the field of civil engineering and want to get a head start on their preparations can look over the syllabus.

Here is the list of topics and sub-topics for each subject that needs to be covered for the GATE 2023 Civil Engineering exam. Make sure the candidates get to know the following sections:

- General Aptitude
- Engineering Mathematics
- Structural Engineering
- Geotechnical Engineering
- Water Resources Engineering
- Environmental Engineering
- Transportation Engineering
- Geomatics Engineering

Candidates who are preparing for GATE 2023 Civil Engineering Exam can check the GATE Syllabus For Civil Engineering given below before you start the preparation.

#### GENERAL APTITUDE (Mandatory)

**Verbal Ability:** English Grammar, Sentence Completion, Verbal Analogies, World Groups Instructions, Critical Reasoning, and Verbal Deduction, etc.

**Numerical Ability:** Numerical Computation, Numerical Estimation, Numerical Reasoning and Data Interpretation, etc.

#### ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS (Mandatory)

**Linear Algebra:** Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen Vectors.

**Calculus:** Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems, local maxima and minima, Taylor and Maclaurin series; Evaluation of definite and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE):** First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; Laplace transform and its application in solving linear ODEs; initial and boundary value problems.

**Partial Differential Equation (PDE):** Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of one-dimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation and two-dimensional Laplace equation.

**Probability and Statistics:** Definitions of probability and sampling theorems; Conditional probability; Discrete Random variables: Poisson and Binomial distributions; Continuous random variables: normal and exponential distributions; Descriptive statistics – Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Hypothesis testing.

**Numerical Methods:** Accuracy and precision; error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; Least square approximation, Newton’s and Lagrange polynomials, numerical differentiation, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for first-order differential equations.

#### STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

**Engineering Mechanics:** System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Friction and its applications; Kinematics of point mass and rigid body; Centre of mass; Euler’s equations of motion; Impulse-momentum; Energy methods; Principles of virtual work.

**Solid Mechanics:** Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Theories of failures; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.

**Structural Analysis:** Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables, and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.

**Construction Materials and Management:** Construction Materials: Structural steel – composition, material properties, and behaviour; Concrete – constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties; Bricks and mortar; Timber; Bitumen. Construction Management: Types of construction projects; Tendering and construction contracts; Rate analysis and standard specifications; Cost estimation; Project planning and network analysis – PERT and CPM.

**Concrete Structures:** Working stress, Limit state, and Ultimate load design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete; Analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.

**Steel Structures:** Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam-columns, column bases; Connections – simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Plastic analysis of beams and frames.

Topics | Sub-Topics |
---|---|

Engineering Mechanics | System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations; Internal forces in structures; Frictions and its applications; Centre of mass; Free Vibrations of undamped SDOF system |

Solid Mechanics | Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams; Simple stress and strain relationships; Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, Transformation of stress; buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses |

Structural Analysis | Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames; Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis |

Construction Materials and Management | Construction Materials: Structural Steel – Composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete – Constituents, mix design, short-term and long-term properties. Construction Management: Types of construction projects; Project planning and network analysis – PERT and CPM; Cost estimation |

Concrete Structures | Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete beams |

Steel Structures | Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and compression members, beams and beam-columns, column bases; Connections – simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Concept of plastic analysis -beams and frames |

#### GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

**Soil Mechanics**** :** Origin of soils, soil structure and fabric; Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability – one dimensional flow, Darcy’s law; Seepage through soils – two-dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping; Principle of effective stress, capillarity, seepage force and quicksand condition; Compaction in laboratory and field conditions; One-dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Mohr’s circle, stress paths, effective and total shear strength parameters, characteristics of clays and sand.

**Foundation Engineering :** Sub-surface investigations – scope, drilling boreholes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories – Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s and Westergaard’s theories, pressure bulbs; Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – types of piles, dynamic and static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin friction.

Soil Mechanics | Three-phase system and phase relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system; Permeability – one-dimensional flow, Seepage through soils – two – dimensional flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping, capillarity, seepage force; Principle of effective stress and quicksand condition; Compaction of soils; One- dimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Shear Strength, Mohr’s circle, effective and total shear strength parameters, Stress-Strain characteristics of clays and sand; Stress paths |

Foundation Engineering | Sub-surface investigations – Drilling boreholes, sampling, plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories – Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes – Finite and infinite slopes, Bishop’s method; Stress distribution in soils – Boussinesq’s theory; Pressure bulbs, Shallow foundations – Terzaghi’s and Meyerhoff’s bearing capacity theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure; Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations – dynamic and static formulae, Axial load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, pile under lateral loading, pile group efficiency, negative skin friction |

#### WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

**Fluid Mechanics:** Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth.

**Hydraulics:** Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles; Basics of hydraulic machines, specific speed of pumps and turbines; Channel Hydraulics – Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump, uniform flow and gradually varied flow.

**Hydrology:** Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation, and routing, reservoir capacity, reservoir, and channel routing, surface run-off models, groundwater hydrology – steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s laws.

**Irrigation:** Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration; Crop water requirements; Design of lined and unlined canals, headworks, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on the permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross-drainage structures, outlets, and escapes.

Fluid Mechanics | Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum and energy equations and their applications; Potential flow, Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of boundary layer and its growth; Concept of lift and drag |

Hydraulics | Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes; Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Channel Hydraulics – Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, hydraulic jump, uniform flow, gradually varied flow and water surface profiles |

Hydrology | Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, watershed, infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, reservoir capacity, flood estimation and routing, surface runoff models, groundwater hydrology – steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcy’s Law |

Irrigation | Types of irrigation systems and methods; Crop water requirements – Duty, delta, evapotranspiration; Gravity Dams and Spillways; Lined and unlined canals, Design of weirs on permeable foundation; cross drainage structures |

#### ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

**Water and Wastewater:** Quality standards, basic unit processes, and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations, and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.

**Air Pollution:** Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards, and limits.

**Municipal Solid Wastes:** Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment, and disposal).

**Noise Pollution:** Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.

Water and Waste Water Quality and Treatment | Basics of water quality standards – Physical, chemical and biological parameters; Water quality index; Unit processes and operations; Water requirement; Water distribution system; Drinking water treatment; Sewerage system design, quantity of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment. Effluent discharge standards; Sludge disposal; Reuse of treated sewage for different applications |

Air Pollution | Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution control, air quality standards, Air quality Index and limits |

Municipal Solid Wastes | Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal) |

#### TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

**Transportation Infrastructure:** Highway alignment and engineering surveys; Geometric design of highways – cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments; Geometric design of railway track; Airport runway length, taxiway, and exit taxiway design.

**Highway Pavements:** Highway materials – desirable properties and quality control tests; Design of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible pavement using IRC: 37-2012; Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 58-2011; Distresses in concrete pavements.

**Traffic Engineering:** Traffic studies on flow, speed, travel time – delay and O-D study, PCU, peak hour factor, parking study, accident study and analysis, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Control devices, signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections and channelization; Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban roads.

Transportation Infrastructure | Geometric design of highways – cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments. Geometric design of railway Track – Speed and Cant. Concept of airport runway length, calculations and corrections; taxiway and exit taxiway design |

Highway Pavements | Highway materials – desirable properties and tests; Desirable properties of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design of flexible and rigid pavement using IRC codes |

Traffic Engineering | Traffic studies on flow and speed, peak hour factor, accident study, statistical analysis of traffic data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental relationships; Traffic signs; Signal design by Webster’s method; Types of intersections; Highway capacity |

#### GEOMATICS ENGINEERING

Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps – scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement – Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves. Photogrammetry – scale, flying height; Remote sensing – basics, platform and sensors, visual image interpretation; Basics of Geographical information system (GIS) and Geographical Positioning system (GPS).

Geomatics Engineering | Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps – scale, coordinate system; Distance and angle measurement – Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing – Scale, flying height; Basics of remote sensing and GIS |

### GATE 2023 Syllabus for CE- Weightage of Important Topics

### Year – wise Weightage of Important Topics (Marks)

Topics | General Aptitude | Engineering Mathematics |

GATE 2023 (Expected) | 15 | 13 |

GATE 2021 | 15 | 13 |

GATE 2020 | 15 | 11 |

GATE 2019 | 15 | 11 |

GATE 2018 | 14 | 11 |

GATE 2017 | 15 | 13 |

### Year Wise Number of Questions asked in GATE from Engineering Mechanics

Topics | Engineering Mechanics |

GATE 2023 (Expected) | 2 |

GATE 2021 | 0 |

GATE 2020 | 1 |

GATE 2019 | 1 |

GATE 2018 | 3 |

GATE 2017 | 1 |

### GATE 2023 Syllabus for CE- Weightage of Important Topics

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