A door is a hinged or otherwise movable barrier that allows people to enter and exit an enclosed space. A doorway or portal is the created opening in the wall.
The primary function of a door is to provide security by restricting access to the doorway (portal). Traditionally, it is a panel that fits into a building’s, room’s, or vehicle’s portal.
Doors are typically made of a material that is appropriate for the door’s function. Hinged doors are common, but other mechanisms, such as slides or counterbalancing, can be used.
- Aluminum Doors
- Automatic Doors
- Bamboo Doors
- Battened & Ledged Doors
- Bifold Doors
- Collapsible Doors
- Dutch Doors
- Fiber-reinforced Plastic Doors
- Fibre Glass Door
- Flush Doors
- French Doors
- Glass Doors
- High Speed Doors
- Hinged Doors
- Louvered Doors
- PVC Doors
- Panel Doors
- Pivot Doors
- Pocket Doors
- Revolving Doors
- Roller Doors
- Rolling Shutters
- Rotating Doors
- Sliding Doors
- Steel Doors
- Swing Doors
- Wooden or Timber Door
Design and styles of Doors
There are many different types of doors, each serving a different purpose. The single-leaf door is the most common, consisting of a single rigid panel that completely fills the doorway.
The double-leaf door or double door and French windows, which have two adjacent independent panels hinged on each side of the doorway, are two variations on this basic design.
Different types of door based on Mechanism
- Automatic Doors
- High-Speed Doors
- Hinged Doors
- Rotating Doors
- Sliding Doors
Automatically opening doors are powered by electricity, springs, or both to open and close. An automatically opening door can be activated in a number of ways:
- A sensor detects traffic is approaching. Sensors for automatic doors are generally:
- A pressure sensor – e.g., a floor mat which reacts to the pressure of someone standing on it.
- An infrared curtain or beam which shines invisible light onto sensors; if someone or something blocks the beam the door is triggered open.
- A motion sensor which uses low-power microwave radar for the same effect.
- A remote sensor (e.g. based on infrared or radio waves) can be triggered by a portable remote control, or is installed inside a vehicle. These are popular for garage doors.
- A switch is operated manually, perhaps after security checks. This can be a push button switch or a swipe card.
- The act of pushing or pulling the door triggers the open and close cycle. These are also known as power-assisted doors.
A high-speed door is a very fast door that can open at up to 4 m/s and is primarily used in the industrial sector where the speed of a door affects production logistics, temperature, and pressure control.
In the pharmaceutical industry, high-speed clean room doors are used because of the special curtain and stainless steel frames. They ensure that all accesses are secure.
The smooth surface structure of the powerful high-speed doors has no protruding edges. As a result, they are simple to clean and particle deposit is virtually eliminated.
High-speed doors are designed to handle a large number of openings each year, typically more than 200,000.
For speed and emergency opening, they must be constructed with heavy-duty parts and counterbalance systems.
Originally made of PVC, the door curtain was later developed in aluminium and acrylic glass sections. With the Green and Energy-saving requirements, high-speed refrigeration and cold room doors with excellent insulation values were also introduced.
The majority of doors have hinges on one side that allow them to pivot away from the doorway in one direction but not the other. The rotation axis is usually vertical.
The axis may be horizontal, above the door opening in some cases, such as hinged garage doors.
To save space on the side to which the door opens, doors can be hinged so that the axis of rotation is not in the plane of the door. This necessitates a mechanism with the axis of rotation on the opposite side of the door opening. This is sometimes the case in trains or aeroplanes, such as with the inward-opening toilet door.
A revolving door has four wings or leaves radiating from a central shaft, which form compartments that rotate around a vertical axis.
A revolving door allows people to pass in both directions without colliding and creates an airlock that keeps the inside and outside worlds separate.
Instead of hinges, a pivot door is supported by a bearing located some distance away from the edge, resulting in a gap on both the pivot and opening sides. In some cases, the pivot is positioned in the middle, resulting in two equal openings.
Doors that slide along tracks are frequently useful, whether for space or aesthetic reasons.
A bypass door is a two- or more-sectioned door unit. The doors can slide past each other in either direction along one axis on parallel overhead tracks.
Sliding Doors are most commonly found in closets, where they’re used to allow access to one side of the closet at a time. When viewed from the front, the doors of a bypass unit overlap slightly, resulting in no visible gap when closed.
Pocket doors are doors that slide inside a wall cavity. In small spaces, this type of door is used. The top of the door slab is mounted to a roller and a track, and it slides inside a wall.
Types of Doors based on Method of Construction
Types of Doors based on Materials
Wood, glass, and metals are used to construct doors. Glass doors are nothing more than glazed doors, as discussed in the first classification. The various types of metal doors are listed below.
- Corrugated Steel Sheet Doors
- Hollow Metal Doors
- Metal Covered Plywood Doors
- Mild Steel Sheet Doors
Corrugated Steel Sheet Doors
These doors are similar to mild steel sheet doors, but corrugated steel sheet is used instead of mild steel sheet.
Hollow Metal Doors
These doors are made of hollow steel sections. Welding small T or I sections inside the rails and stiles strengthens them.
Metal Covered Plywood Doors
The door is encased in tight-fitting sheet metal with tightly folded joints to keep air out of the core, which prevents the door from igniting. As a result, it is fire resistant.
This door is made up of two parts: a hollow metal door and a wood door.
Mild Steel Sheet Doors
The shutter frame is welded with mild steel plates. Angle or T-sections make up the door frame. Shutters are made up of an angle iron frame with two verticals and at least three horizontals.
Types of Doors based on Placing of Components
Er. Mukesh Kumar is Editor in Chief and Co-Funder at ProCivilEngineer.com Civil Engineering Website. Mukesh Kumar is a Bachelor in Civil Engineering From MIT. He has work experience in Highway Construction, Bridge Construction, Railway Steel Girder work, Under box culvert construction, Retaining wall construction. He was a lecturer in a Engineering college for more than 6 years.