Table of Contents

## Objective

Determination of water absorption and bulk density of all ceramic tiles

## Device

- Oven – approx 110. able to maintain the temperature of
^{0}C - Balance – accurate to 0.01% of the mass of the test sample
- water bath
- desiccant
- chamois leather
- wire basket

## test sample preparation

- A test sample consists of 10 numbers of complete tiles. If the surface area of the individual tile sample is 0.04m. More than
^{2}, then the number of tile samples in a sample can be reduced to 5. - When the mass of each individual tile is less than 50 g, take a sufficient number of tiles so that each test sample weighs 50 g to 100 g.
- If the tile dimensions exceed 200mm, it can be cut, but include the cut pieces in the measurement.

## Testing Process

- Bake the tiles in the oven at 110±5. dry on
^{0}c, until it attains a constant mass, that is, when the difference between two consecutive weights at 24 h intervals is less than 0.1%. - Refrigerate the tiles in desiccators over the silica gel, until cooled to room temperature.
- Weigh each tile sample and record the weight of the individual test sample (ie
**M1**) in the observation sheet. - Place the tiles in the water bath vertically with no contact with the water so that there is a 50 mm water depth at the top and bottom of the tiles. Maintain the water level 50 mm above the tiles throughout the test.
- Heat the water until it comes to a boil and continue to boil for 2 hours. After 2 hours, turn off the heat source and allow the tiles to cool, still fully submerged in this water overnight.
- Remove the tiles from the water bath and remove the surface water from the pieces of tile from the chamois leather.
- Weigh each tile immediately and record the weight (ie
**m2**) in the observation sheet. - Now place the samples in a wire basket which is submerged in water and measure the weight of each sample to the nearest 0.01 g.

## calculation

### 1. Water absorption

For each tile, calculate the water absorption in percentage (up to the first decimal place) of dry mass using the following formula.

**Water absorption (%) = [(m2 – m1) / m1] * 100**

Where,

m1 = mass of dry tile, g . In

m2 = mass of the wet tile, g . In

Calculate the average water absorption of the sample as the average of the individual result.

### 2. Bulk Density

Bulk Density (B), g/cm. In^{3}, the ratio of the dry mass of a sample divided by the external volume, including pores. Calculate the bulk density of the tile as follows.

**b = m 1 / v**

Where,

B = bulk density of the tile, g/cm^{3}

m1 = mass of dry tile, g

V = external volume, cm. In^{3}, **(M2 – M3)**

m3 = mass of suspended tile impregnated by boiling water method g. In

Calculate the average bulk density of the sample as the average of the individual result.

## Reporting

The test report should include the following.

- Description of tiles
- Water absorption and bulk density of each tile sample
- Water absorption and bulk density

## Reference

**IS: 13630 (Part-I)****2)** – Ceramic Tiles – Test Methods, Basis for Sampling and Acceptance [Part 2 – determination of water absorption & bulk density]

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