What are the Different Types Of Mortar?

What is Mortar?

It is a plastic mixture of binding materials (such as cement, lime, etc.), fine aggregates (such as sand, sandpaper, etc.), water and any admixture approved by the Engineer-in-Charge. It is used for bonding masonry or structural units. Different types of mortar are used in the construction industry. Following are the types of mortars based on the material used to prepare the mixture.

Different Types Of Mortar
Different Types Of Mortar

Different Types Of Mortar Based On The Binding Material Used

  1. Cement Mortar
  2. Lime Mortar
  3. Gypsum Mortar
  4. Gauge mortar (or combination mortar)
  5. Surkhi Mortar
  6. Aerated Cement Mortar
  7. Mud Mortar
  8. Dry Mortar

1. cement mortar?

What is cement mortar? It is a mixture of cement, sand and water; Where cement acts as a binding material. The ratio of cement to sand varies from 1:2 to 1:6 depending on the strength desired for a particular job.

Cement is used as the binding material in this type of mortar, and sand is used as an adulterant, as the name implies. In addition, the proportion of sand and cement is determined based on the specified durability and working conditions. Cement mortar has a high water resistance and strength. Cement to sand ratios can range from 1:2 to 1:6.

2. Lime Mortar?

The main binding material is lime in this case. Hydraulic lime and fat lime are the two most common types of lime. In damp conditions, a 1:2 ratio of hydraulic lime and sand produces excellent results, making it ideal for waterlogged areas. Fat lime in lime mortar requires 2 to 3 times the amount of sand and is primarily used for dry work. This type of mortar has a high plasticity, making it easy to work with.

It is a mixture of lime (fat lime or hydraulic lime), sand and water. Thick lime, which acts as a binding material, is added to prepare mortar when used in masonry work and hydraulic lime is added when the mortar is used in foundation work or in damp conditions. Is. Generally the ratio of lime to sand is kept at 1:2.

3. Gypsum Mortar

This mortar is made up of a binding material made of plaster and soft sand, as well as fine aggregate. Gypsum mortar is commonly used in ancient Egyptian structures such as pyramids. In damp environments, gypsum mortar has a short lifespan.

4. gauged mortar (or combination mortar)

Lime, sand, and cement are used to make gauged mortar. This mortar is also known as lime-cement mortar or composite mortar. As previously stated, cement has a higher strength than lime, and lime mortar has a higher plasticity, so when these two materials are combined, you get a mix of two properties at a very low cost. This mortar is typically made with a cement-to-lime ratio of 1:6–1:8.

Gauged mortar (or combination mortar) is a mixture of cement, lime, sand and water. The process of adding cement to improve the quality of lime mortar is called gauging and the mortar thus prepared is known as gauge mortar. The preparation of cement to lime mortar is approximately 1:6 to 1:9 by volume. This type of mortar combination (ie lime and cement) is strong, dense and economical.

5. Surkhi Mortar

Lime, surkhi, and water make up the Surkhi mortar. Surkhi is commonly used as a fine aggregate or adulterant. Half the amount of surkhi and half the amount of sand is occasionally used. Surkhi is a finely ground powdered burnt clay that is impurity and admixture free. Surkhi has a higher tensile strength than sand and is readily available in the market at low prices.

6. Aerated Cement Mortar

The majority of available cement mortars lack workability and plasticity. As a result, air entraining agents were added to cement mortar to make it more plastic and workable, leading to the development of aerated cement mortar.

7. Mud Mortar

A type of mortar in which the fine aggregate is rice husk, cow dung, or sawdust, and the binding material is mud. When cement or lime are not available, this type of mortar comes in handy.

8. Dry Mortar

Dry mortar is a mixture of lime, surkhi and water. It is a lime mortar in which sand is replaced by slurry for economy and strength.

Surkhi is finely burnt clay and is usually made of slightly burnt bricks. The good sieve should be completely clean and free from any admixture of foreign substances.

Different Types Of Mortar Based On Its Application

Mortar can be classified into the following categories based on the type of application:

  • Bricklaying Or Stone-Laying Mortar
  • Finishing Mortar
  • Thinset

Bricklaying Or Stone-Laying Mortar

Bricklaying Or Stone-Laying Mortar – This type of mortar is typically used to join bricks or stones together.

Finishing Mortar

Finishing Mortar is primarily used in the pointing and plastering of buildings. Binding agents for this type of mortar are typically lime and cement.


A special type of mortar that is used to install stone or ceramic tiles as an adhesive.

Different Types Of Special Purpose Mortars

  1. Fire Resistant Mortar
  2. Packing Mortar
  3. Sound Absorbing Mortar
  4. Chemical Resistant Mortar
  5. Lightweight Mortar
  6. X-ray Shielding Mortar

1. Fire Resistant Mortar

When fire warnings or other similar dangers to a building structure are issued in a specific zone, fire resistant mortar is used as a fireproofing shield. When aluminous cement is mixed with the fine powder of fire bricks, the mortar becomes fire resistant.

2. Packing Mortar

Cement-loam, cement-sand, or even cement-sand-loam are the most common ingredients in packing mortars. This type of mortar is frequently used to pack oil wells. The packing mortar must have a high degree of homogeneity and strength, as well as be water resistant.

Sound Absorbing Mortar

As the name implies, this type of mortar acts as a soundproofing layer to help reduce noise levels. Cement, lime, slag, gypsum, and other binding materials are used in the mortar, while cinders and pumice are used as adulterants.

Chemical Resistant Mortar

This mortar is ideal for structures that are more vulnerable to chemical attacks. Chemically resistant additives are included in this mortar. There are many different types of chemical resistant mortars that can be made, but ultimately, the choice of mortar is based on the expected damage caused by a specific chemical or group of chemicals.

Lightweight Mortar

Heat- and sound-proofing constructions are common uses for this material. This mortar is made by mixing wood powder, sawdust, jute fibres, coir, asbestos fibres, and other materials into a cement or lime mortar.

X-ray Shielding Mortar

The X-ray rooms’ walls and ceilings are plastered with X-ray shielding mortar to protect against the harmful effects of the X-ray machines. Fine aggregates from heavy rock and appropriate admixtures are used to make this special mortar.

When working with bricks and other masonry units, it is critical to use the correct type of mortar for the job. This is because some mortars are too hard for certain types of masonry, which can cause cracks in the structure and reduce its strength.

Tags: mortar types, mortar mix, mortar cement, mortar for brick, mixture of sand and cement, cement masonry, mortar types for brick, brick mortar types, mortar ratio for brick masonry, masonry mortar types

Er. Mukesh Kumar

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Er. Mukesh Kumar is Editor in Chief and Co-Funder at ProCivilEngineer.com Civil Engineering Website. Mukesh Kumar is a Bachelor in Civil Engineering From MIT. He has work experience in Highway Construction, Bridge Construction, Railway Steel Girder work, Under box culvert construction, Retaining wall construction. He was a lecturer in a Engineering college for more than 6 years.