WHAT ARE THE BASIC COMPONENTS OF A BUILDING STRUCTURE?

basic components of a building

A building consists of the following basic components.


basic components of a building
basic components of a building

1. Foundation

A foundation is necessary to evenly distribute the entire building load on the soil so that there are no harmful settlements. Hence the foundation needs to be built on good/solid ground.

2. Plinth

A plinth is usually built above ground level and immediately after the foundation. It elevates the floor above ground level and at the same time prevents surface water from entering the building.

3. Damp Proof Course (DPC)

Damp proof course is a layer of water proofing material such as asphalt or waterproof cement. The walls are constructed over a damp proof course.

The damp proof course prevents surface water from rising into the walls.

Moisture reduces the strength of the walls and creates unhealthy living conditions. Also it affects the paint and plaster and increases the cost of maintenance.

Where plinth beams are manufactured, a damp proofing layer is not required, as the plinth beam already acts as a DPC.

4. Plinth Beam

Plinth beams are constructed depending on the type of building structure and the nature of the soil. This provides additional stability with respect to building settlements and earthquake damage.

5. Floor

It is the surface on which we do most of our activities. Floors are laid over the filling of the plinth and on the rafters.

Floors can be made of different materials, but care should be taken that the ground under the floor is well compacted. Flooring is done to prevent moisture from moving upwards and is a firm platform that can be kept clean and tidy.

6. Walls

Walls are vertical elements on which the ceiling rests at the end. They can be made of different materials like bricks, stones, clay, concrete blocks, lateritic blocks etc. If the walls are too long, columns may be provided to carry the roof.

Walls provide privacy and enclosure. The walls also provide protection and protection from natural elements such as wind, rain and sunlight.

Openings are to be provided in the wall for access and ventilation.


7. Inauguration

Usually openings are provided in the walls in the form of doors, windows and ventilators.

doors provide access; Windows and ventilators provide light and ventilation.

lintels Built just above the opening. It is usually a stone slab or concrete slab.

Dehli The part of the wall that is just below the window.

Lintels are constructed to hold the walls above the opening. A continuous lintel beam is provided on all walls in earthquake prone areas.

8. Stairs

A ladder is a sequence of steps and is provided to carry the means of ascent and descent between the floor and the landing.

The apartment or room of a building in which there is a staircase is called a staircase. The space or opening occupied by a ladder is called a ladder.


Different types of stairs are used in buildings, such as RCC staircase, wooden staircase, metal staircase, brick staircase etc.

9. Roof

The roof provides protection for the building and the people living in it. The roof rests on the walls and requires proper anchoring so that wind and other mechanical impacts cannot destroy it. A roof can have different shapes but it is always either flat or sloping.

The roof is usually made of RCC, stone slabs, tiles etc.

10. Surface / Finish

The exterior finish is the outermost layer of protection, protecting the structure from weathering. Interior finishes are the layers given on the inner faces. They give durability and a pleasing look from inside.

Er. Mukesh Kumar

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Er. Mukesh Kumar is Editor in Chief and Co-Funder at ProCivilEngineer.com Civil Engineering Website. Mukesh Kumar is a Bachelor in Civil Engineering From MIT. He has work experience in Highway Construction, Bridge Construction, Railway Steel Girder work, Under box culvert construction, Retaining wall construction. He was a lecturer in a Engineering college for more than 6 years.