Topographic surveyors perform most of their operational duties away from the parent unit. Topographical survey involves fieldwork on a project area. Survey fieldwork involves making observations and measurements; recording data; and return data to computer and/or draftsman for computation, compilation and dissemination. Surveyor has to remove many factors which combine to affect working conditions. They should be constantly on alert for various factors like the following:

1. weather and terrain

Weather and terrain can adversely affect the field survey. Fog, haze, smog or ground haze can severely reduce the effectiveness of optical and electro-optical equipment. Under high water, marshy sands can impede the leveling action of floodplains.

GPS constellation signals usually require a clear view of the sky. Urban and forested areas may mask or deflect the direct signal required for accurate measurement. Good coordination and proper planning can alert field parties about the best time and methods to utilize,

2. personnel

The rate of progress often varies in direct proportion to the level of training and experience of the personnel assigned., The most effective way to train personnel is in situations where their actions have real results, not just practice. On-the-job training produces a measurable product but the work is often lost due to correcting mistakes.

3. Device

Equipment reliability must be considered when determining completion dates. Modern, well-organized equipment can often increase the rate of progress. Older equipment, if properly maintained or adjusted, will yield accurate results. Repair or replacement of broken equipment or parts sometimes slows or stops field surveys.

The instrument must be calibrated as part of a combat check before a survey mission can begin.

4. Purpose

The purpose and type of survey will determine accuracy requirements, Control networks are established using high-accuracy GPS, triangulation, traverse or leveling procedures. On the other end, the cut and fill standards for highways are very low. In some surveys, the distance to inaccessible points must be determined. High-accuracy distance and angle measurements are required so that these values ​​can yield acceptable results when used in trigonometric formulas. This type of survey directly depends on the purity of the environment. Observation measurements for a single position may be delayed by days while waiting for good weather.

5. Accuracy

Accuracy requirements will dictate the equipment and techniques selected, For example, site surveys may use a comparatively rough technique for elevation, but control-network leveling requires more precise and expensive equipment and extensive, time-consuming techniques.

6. errors

There is some amount of error in all measurements. errors classified as orderly and casual The most common are unchecked errors. In addition to errors, measurements are susceptible to mistakes or omissions that result from a misunderstanding of the problem, poor judgment, confusion or carelessness. The overall impact of mistakes and blunders can be greatly reduced by following: pre-established systematic process, This process will be beneficial at all stages of the survey.

7. progress rate

The rate of progression varies depending on experience and repetition. As skill and confidence increase, so does speed, Proper preparation and planning reduces duplication of effort and increases efficiency.

Er. Mukesh Kumar

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Er. Mukesh Kumar is Editor in Chief and Co-Funder at ProCivilEngineer.com Civil Engineering Website. Mukesh Kumar is a Bachelor in Civil Engineering From MIT. He has work experience in Highway Construction, Bridge Construction, Railway Steel Girder work, Under box culvert construction, Retaining wall construction. He was a lecturer in a Engineering college for more than 6 years.