What is Foundation?
The foundation is the lower part of the building usually located below ground level, which transmits the load of the super structure to the supporting soil. A foundation is therefore that part of the structure that is in direct contact with the ground over which the load is transmitted.
1. decrease in load intensity
The foundation super distributes the load of the structure over a large area so that the load intensity at its base (ie the total load divided by the total area) does not exceed the safe bearing capacity of the sub-soil.
2. equitable distribution of load
Foundations distribute the non-uniform load of the super structure evenly across the sub soil. For example, two columns with unequal loads may have a joint base that can transmit the load equally to the sub soil with equal soil pressure. Due to this, unequal or differential settlements are minimized.
3. flat surface provision
The foundation provides flat and hard surface on which the super structure can be constructed.
4. lateral stability
It connects the super structure to the ground, thus providing lateral stability to the super structure. The stability of the building against slipping and overturning is increased due to horizontal forces (such as wind, earthquake etc.) caused by the foundation.
5. protection against shorting
It provides structural protection against weakening or scuffing by burying animals and flood waters.
6. protection from soil movement
Special foundation measures prevent or reduce distress (or cracks) in the super structure due to expansion or contraction of sub soils due to movement of moisture in some problematic soils.