Surveying :-


It is the art of determining the relative positions of different objects on the surface of the earth by measuring the horizontal distances between them and by preparing a map to any suitable scale. Thus in this discipline the measurements are taken only in horizontal plane.


It is the art of determining the relative vertical distances of different points on the surface of the earth. Therefore in leveling the measurements are taken only in the vertical plane.

The objective of Surveying:-

The aim of surveying is to prepare a map, to show the relative positions of the object on the surface of the earth. The map is drawn to some suitable scale. It show the natural features of the country such as towns, villages, roads, railways, rivers, etc.Maps may also include details of different engineering works such as roads, railways, irrigation, canal , etc.

Uses of Surveying:-

  1. To prepare a topographical map which show the hills, village, rivers, valleys, towns, forest, etc. of a country.
  2. To prepare a cadastral map showing the boundaries of fields , houses and other properties.
  3. To prepare an engineering map which show the details of engineering works such as roads, railways, irrigation, canal, reservoirs.
  4. To prepare a military map showing the road and railway communication with different parts of country. Showing the different strategic points important for defence of country.
  5. To prepare the contour map – To determine the capacity of a reservoir and to find the best possible routes for roads, railways, etc.
  6. Geological Map – Showing areas including underground resources.
  7. To prepare an archaeological map including places where animal relics exists.

Classification of Surveying :-

  1. Primary Surveying :-

(I) Plane Surveying

(II) Geodetic Surveying

  2. Secondary Surveying

(1) Based on Instrument

(a)    Chain Survey

(b)   Compass Survey

(c)    Plane Table Survey

(d)   Thedolite Survey

(e)   Tacheometric Survey

(f)     Photographic Survey

(2) Based on Methods

(a)  Triangulation Survey

(b)  Traverse Survey

(3) Based on Objects

(a)  Geological Survey

(b)  Mine Survey

(c)  Archeological Survey

(d)  Military Survey

(4) Based on Nature of field

(a) Land Surveying   :-

(i) Topographical Survey

(ii) Cadastral Survey

(iii) City Survey

(iv) Engineering Survey

(b) Marine Surveying

(c) Astronomical Surveying

Surveying 1
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