6 Types of Bricks Classification According To Indian Standard

Bricks Classification According To Indian Standard – Bricks Classification is done in order to distinguish between bricks so that they can be used accordingly. Indian Standard is followed in this article to classify bricks. Special type of bricks known as “fire bricks” are covered separately at the end.

Burnt Clay Fly Ash Bricks - Bricks Classification According To Indian Standard
Burnt Clay Fly Ash Bricks

Bricks

These are blocks of tampered clay, moulded to suitable shapes and sizes while it is still in a plastic condition, dried in sun and burnt so as to make them strong, hard and durable.

Here is the classification of bricks according to Indian standard. You can Use for Several Projects.

Bricks As Per Indian Standard

Types of Bricks Classification According To Indian Standard – As per Indian Standard IS: 1077-1957, the bricks are classified as under

  • Sun-dried or Kacha Bricks
  • Burns or Pucca Bricks
    • First Class Bricks
    • Second class bricks
    • Third class or pilla bricks
    • Overburnt or Jhama bricks

Sun-dried or Kacha bricks – These bricks after moulding have been dried in the sun, and are used in the construction of temporary and cheap structures. These types of bricks should not be used at places exposed to heavy rains.

Burns or Pucca Bricks

Burns or Pucca Bricks are a type of brick used in construction projects in India. The term “Pucca” is used to describe bricks that are made from clay and are fired at high temperatures in a kiln. This process gives the bricks a hard, dense and durable structure, making them suitable for use in construction projects.

Pucca bricks are made from a mixture of clay, water and sand. The mixture is then molded into the desired shape and size, and left to dry for a period of time. After drying, the bricks are fired in a kiln at high temperatures, typically between 900 to 1100 degree Celsius. This process causes the clay to harden and the bricks to become more durable.

Pucca bricks have several advantages over other types of bricks. They are extremely durable and have a high compressive strength, which makes them suitable for use in load-bearing walls. They are also non-combustible, which makes them ideal for use in buildings where fire safety is a concern. Additionally, they have a low water absorption rate, which makes them resistant to weathering and erosion.


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Pucca bricks are also known as “Burns bricks” as they are fired in a kiln, which is also known as “Burning” process. This process gives the bricks a hard, dense and durable structure.

The size of Pucca bricks are usually standard as 190mm x 90mm x 90mm (length x breadth x height) as per IS: 3495-1992, however, the size can vary depending on the location and the type of brick being used.

In summary, Burns or Pucca Bricks are a type of brick made from clay which are fired at high temperatures in a kiln, giving the bricks a hard, dense and durable structure. They have several advantages over other types of bricks, including high compressive strength, non-combustibility, and low water absorption rate, making them suitable for use in construction projects. The standard size of Pucca bricks are 190mm x 90mm x 90mm (length x breadth x height) as per IS: 3495-1992.

First Class Bricks (Class 1)

First Class Bricks, also known as Class 1 bricks, are a high-quality type of brick used in construction projects. They are made from a mixture of clay, sand and water and are fired at high temperatures in a kiln, giving them a hard, dense and durable structure.

According to the Indian Standard IS: 3495-1992, First Class Bricks are defined as bricks that have a compressive strength of not less than 75 Kg/cm², a water absorption of not more than 20% and do not exhibit any visible cracks or defects.

First Class Bricks are suitable for use in load-bearing walls and other structural elements of a building. They have a high compressive strength, which means they can withstand heavy loads and pressure. They also have low water absorption, making them resistant to weathering and erosion, and have a high fire resistance.

The size of First Class Bricks are usually standard as 190mm x 90mm x 90mm (length x breadth x height) as per IS: 3495-1992, however, the size can vary depending on the location and the type of brick being used.

In summary, First Class Bricks, also known as Class 1 bricks, are a high-quality type of brick made from a mixture of clay, sand and water which are fired at high temperatures in a kiln, giving them a hard, dense and durable structure. They have a high compressive strength, low water absorption and are suitable for use in load-bearing walls and other structural elements of a building. The standard size of First Class Bricks are 190mm x 90mm x 90mm (length x breadth x height) as per IS: 3495-1992.

Second Class Bricks (Class 2)

Second Class Bricks, also known as Class 2 bricks, are a lower-quality type of brick used in construction projects. They are made from a mixture of clay, sand and water and are fired at high temperatures in a kiln, giving them a hard, dense and durable structure.

According to the Indian Standard IS: 3495-1992, Second Class Bricks are defined as bricks that have a compressive strength of not less than 55 Kg/cm², a water absorption of not more than 25% and do not exhibit any visible cracks or defects.

Second Class Bricks are suitable for use in non-load-bearing walls, partition walls, and other non-structural elements of a building. They have a lower compressive strength as compared to first class bricks, which means they cannot withstand heavy loads and pressure. They also have higher water absorption as compared to first class bricks, making them less resistant to weathering and erosion.

The size of Second Class Bricks are usually standard as 190mm x 90mm x 90mm (length x breadth x height) as per IS: 3495-1992, however, the size can vary depending on the location and the type of brick being used.

In summary, Second Class Bricks, also known as Class 2 bricks, are a lower-quality type of brick made from a mixture of clay, sand and water which are fired at high temperatures in a kiln, giving them a hard, dense and durable structure. They have a lower compressive strength and higher water absorption as compared to First Class Bricks. They are suitable for use in non-load-bearing walls, partition walls, and other non-structural elements of a building. The standard size of Second Class Bricks are 190mm x 90mm x 90mm (length x breadth x height) as per IS: 3495-1992.

Third Class Bricks (Class 3)

Third Class Bricks, also known as Class 3 bricks, are a lower-quality type of brick used in construction projects. They are made from a mixture of clay, sand and water and are fired at high temperatures in a kiln, giving them a hard, dense and durable structure.

According to the Indian Standard IS: 3495-1992, Third Class Bricks are defined as bricks that have a compressive strength of not less than 35 Kg/cm², a water absorption of not more than 30% and do not exhibit any visible cracks or defects.

Third Class Bricks are not suitable for use in load-bearing walls or other structural elements of a building, they are mostly used for internal and external plastering, flooring and other non-structural elements of a building. They have the lowest compressive strength as compared to first and second class bricks, which means they cannot withstand heavy loads and pressure. They also have higher water absorption as compared to first and second class bricks, making them less resistant to weathering and erosion.

The size of Third Class Bricks are usually standard as 190mm x 90mm x 90mm (length x breadth x height) as per IS: 3495-1992, however, the size can vary depending on the location and the type of brick being used.

In summary, Third Class Bricks, also known as Class 3 bricks, are a lower-quality type of brick made from a mixture of clay, sand and water which are fired at high temperatures in a kiln, giving them a hard, dense and durable structure. They have the lowest compressive strength and higher water absorption as compared to First and Second Class Bricks. They are not suitable for use in load-bearing walls or other structural elements of a building, they are mostly used for internal and external plastering, flooring and other non-structural elements of a building. The standard size of Third Class Bricks are 190mm x 90mm x 90mm (length x breadth x height) as per IS: 3495-1992.


Water Absorption Of Bricks

The water absorption of bricks after 24 hours immersion in cold water should be as given below considering bricks classification done earlier.

  1. First Class Bricks – 20% by weight
  2. Second Class Bricks – 22% by weight
  3. Third Class Bricks – 25% by weight

Fire Bricks

Fire Bricks are made of “fire clay” or “refractory clay” and burnt at high temperatures in special klins. These bricks are used for the lining of furnances, boilers, combustion chambers and chimneys where high temperature exists. These are generally capable of withstanding high temperatures upto 1700° C.

Fire Brick

The usual composition of fire clay is

  • Slica                                              = 56 to 90%
  • Alumina                                         = 2 to 36%
  • Iron Oxide                                     = 2 to 6%
  • Lime, magnesia, potash and soda   = 8 to 20%
About the Author
Er. Mukesh Kumar
Er. Mukesh Kumar is Editor in Chief and Co-Funder at ProCivilEngineer.com Civil Engineering Website. Mukesh Kumar is a Bachelor in Civil Engineering From MIT. He has work experience in Highway Construction, Bridge Construction, Railway Steel Girder work, Under box culvert construction, Retaining wall construction. He was a lecturer in a Engineering college for more than 6 years.